Abstract: The present study investigated the impact of the resettlement of internally displaced persons on the livelihoods of local people in Mangalla Payam, South Sudan. The study was guided by the social conflict theory. The research design employed in this study was descriptive survey and mixed approach. The researcher employed a combination of probability and non-probability sampling methods. The study consisted of a total sample size of 395 individuals, which included 386 members from the Mangalla community and 9 participants who held prominent positions in the community, namely 3 chiefs, 3 notable church leaders, and 3 Government officials. The qualitative analysis involved the use of verbatim and thematic approaches, while the quantitative analysis utilized descriptive statistical techniques with the help of SPSS Version 27 program. The findings were then visually displayed through the use of charts, tables, and graphs. Findings of the study indicates that, settlement of the IDPs had resulted in conflicts between them and the indigenous population, primarily due to inadequate procedures for acquiring land and lack of prompt measures to facilitate their return to their original locations in Jonglei state. The escalating population of cattle owned by displaced individuals resulted in the degradation of agricultural land in Mangalla Payam, thereby leading to food insecurity among both the host community and the displaced population. The indigenous inhabitants of Mangalla perceived the presence of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the host community negatively due to the significant deforestation observed. The establishment of settlement for IDPs in Mangalla Payam has resulted in several obstacles to social cohesion between the IDPs and the host community. These barriers include animosity from the host community towards the IDPs, instances of violence and retaliation, coerced marriages, and the introduction of unfamiliar dietary practices. It was concluded that, settlement of internally displaced people had both positive and negative effects on the livelihoods of the local people in the study area. It was recommended that, the National government should provide basic needs and security support. Awareness creation by stakeholders before repatriation; consult with the locals before settling.
Key words: Internally Displaced Persons, settlement, economic livelihoods